Virtual Machine

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Virtual Machine
Manufacturer Generic
Hardware Features
Software Features

Generic virtual machine target. This is particularly useful when doing development and testing.


There are three different types of images: VirtualBox (.box), QEMU (.qcow2, .vdi) and Vagrant. The VirtualBox image may be converted to a VMware VMDK image which has been reported to perform better and have good hardware acceleration. Converting the qcow2 image to raw allows it to be used on real hardware.


Download latest .vdi.xz image, unpack it with "xz -d" command. Create new Virtual Machine, select "Debian (64-bit)" and 1024MB RAM. Use the downloaded file as virtual hard disk. You are done!


In general something like

 qemu-system-x86_64 -hda maemo-leste-1.0-amd64.qcow2 -enable-kvm -cpu host -smp cores=2 -m 1024 -usb -device usb-mouse -machine vmport=off

should work. But there seem to be issues with some QEMU versions, for more details see issue#198.

To set up a port forward for SSH, add:

 -nic user,hostfwd=tcp:

And then log in like this (password: toor):

 ssh root@localhost -p 7722

If the mouse pointer is grabbed and no cursor shows, you can add

 -usb -device usb-tablet

to the command line

If you have a USB modem you can also use that in QEMU. You can either use sudo to elevate your privileges to be able to use it:

 sudo qemu-system-x86_64 -hda maemo-leste-1.0-amd64-virtual-20200324.qcow2 -enable-kvm -cpu host -smp cores=2 -m 1024 -usb -device usb-mouse -machine vmport=off \
 -nic user,hostfwd=tcp: \
 -usb -device usb-ehci,id=ehci \
 -device usb-host,bus=ehci.0,vendorid=0x0bdb,productid=0x193e

Or you can make a udev rule for your device. For example, with a Lenovo Ericsson N5321 gw you can create "/etc/udev/rules.d/45-n5321.rules" with this in it:

 # Lenovo Ericsson N5321 gw simple udev rule
 SUBSYSTEMS=="usb", ATTRS{idVendor}=="0bdb", ATTRS{idProduct}=="193e", \

And then activate it by running these two commands as root:

 # udevadm control --reload-rules
 # udevadm trigger

Now you can run QEMU without the need for sudo!


See here.

Initial configuration

On the first run you may want to generate ssh host keys and set the timezone. To do so open the "X Terminal" application and run:

sudo su -
dpkg-reconfigure openssh-server
dpkg-reconfigure tzdata

Make the system up-to-date:

apt update
apt upgrade
apt install linux-image-amd64

To get networking to work (at least in virtualbox), launch a shell and do

sudo ifconfig eth0 up
sudo dhclient eth0


If you have a modem exposed to QEMU, you still need to do some steps manually to get connectivity.

First off you need to add the development APT repository to your APT sources:

# echo 'deb beowulf-devel main contrib non-free' >> /etc/apt/sources.list

Now update and upgrade:

# apt update && apt upgrade

Then you can install these things:

# apt install ofono libicd-network-ofono connui-iapsettings-gprs connui-statusbar-cellular connui-home-cellular connui-cellular-settings connui-conndlgs-cellular

We need mdbus2 to manipulate oFono:

# wget
# dpkg -i mdbus2_2.3.3-2_amd64.deb

Then we can check if oFono finds our modem:

# mdbus2 -s org.ofono

Then can check our mbm_0 modem:

# mdbus2 -s org.ofono /mbm_0
[METHOD]   org.freedesktop.DBus.Introspectable.Introspect() -> (s:xml)
[METHOD]   org.ofono.Modem.GetProperties() -> (a{sv}:properties)
[METHOD]   org.ofono.Modem.SetProperty(s:property, v:value) -> ()
[SIGNAL]   org.ofono.Modem.PropertyChanged(s:name, v:value)
# mdbus2 -s org.ofono /mbm_0 org.ofono.Modem.GetProperties
({'Online': <false>, 'Powered': <false>, 'Lockdown': <false>, 'Emergency': <false>, 'SystemPath': <'/sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:04.0/usb1/1-1'>, 'Interfaces': <@as []>, 'Features': <@as []>, 'Type': <'hardware'>},)

Power on the modem:

# mdbus2 -s org.ofono /mbm_0 org.ofono.Modem.SetProperty Powered true
# mdbus2 -s org.ofono /mbm_0 org.ofono.Modem.GetProperties
({'Online': <false>, 'Powered': <true>, 'Lockdown': <false>, 'Emergency': <false>, 'Manufacturer': <'Lenovo'>, 'Model': <'N5321 gw'>, 'Revision': <'R3C11'>, 'Serial': <'xxxxxxxxxxxx'>, 'SystemPath': <'/sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:04.0/usb1/1-1'>, 'Interfaces': <['org.ofono.SimManager']>, 'Features': <['sim']>, 'Type': <'hardware'>},)

Check if we need to enter a pin:

# mdbus2 -s org.ofono /mbm_0 org.ofono.SimManager.GetProperties
({'Present': <true>, 'CardIdentifier': <'xxxxxx'>, 'FixedDialing': <false>, 'BarredDialing': <false>, 'SubscriberNumbers': <@as []>, 'LockedPins': <['pin']>, 'PreferredLanguages': <['de', 'en', 'fr']>, 'PinRequired': <'pin'>, 'Retries': <{'pin': byte 0x03, 'pin2': 0x03, 'puk': 0x0a, 'puk2': 0x0a}>, 'CardSlotCount': <uint32 1>, 'ActiveCardSlot': <uint32 1>},)

If PinRequired is 'pin' we need to enter a pin to unlock the sim:

# mdbus2 -s org.ofono /mbm_0 org.ofono.SimManager.EnterPin pin 1234

Then we can bring the modem online:

# mdbus2 -s org.ofono /mbm_0 org.ofono.Modem.SetProperty Online true

If we now redo the first mdbus2 command on /mbm_0:

# mdbus2 -s org.ofono /mbm_0
[METHOD]   org.freedesktop.DBus.Introspectable.Introspect() -> (s:xml)
[METHOD]   org.ofono.Modem.GetProperties() -> (a{sv}:properties)
[METHOD]   org.ofono.Modem.SetProperty(s:property, v:value) -> ()
[SIGNAL]   org.ofono.Modem.PropertyChanged(s:name, v:value)
[METHOD]   org.ofono.SimManager.GetProperties() -> (a{sv}:properties)
[METHOD]   org.ofono.SimManager.SetProperty(s:property, v:value) -> ()
[METHOD]   org.ofono.SimManager.ChangePin(s:type, s:oldpin, s:newpin) -> ()
[METHOD]   org.ofono.SimManager.EnterPin(s:type, s:pin) -> ()
[METHOD]   org.ofono.SimManager.ResetPin(s:type, s:puk, s:newpin) -> ()
[METHOD]   org.ofono.SimManager.LockPin(s:type, s:pin) -> ()
[METHOD]   org.ofono.SimManager.UnlockPin(s:type, s:pin) -> ()
[METHOD]   org.ofono.SimManager.GetIcon(y:id) -> (ay:icon)
[SIGNAL]   org.ofono.SimManager.PropertyChanged(s:name, v:value)
[METHOD]   org.ofono.AllowedAccessPoints.GetAllowedAccessPoints() -> (as:apnlist)
[METHOD]   org.ofono.SimAuthentication.GetApplications() -> (a{oa{sv}}:applications)
[METHOD]   org.ofono.SimAuthentication.GetProperties() -> (a{sv}:properties)
[METHOD]   org.ofono.SimToolkit.GetProperties() -> (a{sv}:properties)
[METHOD]   org.ofono.SimToolkit.SelectItem(y:item, o:agent) -> ()
[METHOD]   org.ofono.SimToolkit.RegisterAgent(o:path) -> ()
[METHOD]   org.ofono.SimToolkit.UnregisterAgent(o:path) -> ()
[SIGNAL]   org.ofono.SimToolkit.PropertyChanged(s:name, v:value)
[METHOD]   org.ofono.RadioSettings.GetProperties() -> (a{sv}:properties)
[METHOD]   org.ofono.RadioSettings.SetProperty(s:property, v:value) -> ()
[SIGNAL]   org.ofono.RadioSettings.PropertyChanged(s:name, v:value)
[METHOD]   org.ofono.MessageManager.GetProperties() -> (a{sv}:properties)
[METHOD]   org.ofono.MessageManager.SetProperty(s:property, v:value) -> ()
[METHOD]   org.ofono.MessageManager.SendMessage(s:to, s:text) -> (o:path)
[METHOD]   org.ofono.MessageManager.GetMessages() -> (a(oa{sv}):messages)
[SIGNAL]   org.ofono.MessageManager.PropertyChanged(s:name, v:value)
[SIGNAL]   org.ofono.MessageManager.IncomingMessage(s:message, a{sv}:info)
[SIGNAL]   org.ofono.MessageManager.ImmediateMessage(s:message, a{sv}:info)
[SIGNAL]   org.ofono.MessageManager.MessageAdded(o:path, a{sv}:properties)
[SIGNAL]   org.ofono.MessageManager.MessageRemoved(o:path)
[METHOD]   org.ofono.PushNotification.RegisterAgent(o:path) -> ()
[METHOD]   org.ofono.PushNotification.UnregisterAgent(o:path) -> ()
[METHOD]   org.ofono.SmartMessaging.RegisterAgent(o:path) -> ()
[METHOD]   org.ofono.SmartMessaging.UnregisterAgent(o:path) -> ()
[METHOD]   org.ofono.SmartMessaging.SendBusinessCard(s:to, ay:card) -> (o:path)
[METHOD]   org.ofono.SmartMessaging.SendAppointment(s:to, ay:appointment) -> (o:path)
[METHOD]   org.ofono.LocationReporting.GetProperties() -> (a{sv}:properties)
[METHOD]   org.ofono.LocationReporting.Request() -> (h:fd)
[METHOD]   org.ofono.LocationReporting.Release() -> ()
[SIGNAL]   org.ofono.LocationReporting.PropertyChanged(s:name, v:value)
[METHOD]   org.ofono.SupplementaryServices.Initiate(s:command) -> (s:result_name, v:value)
[METHOD]   org.ofono.SupplementaryServices.Respond(s:reply) -> (s:result)
[METHOD]   org.ofono.SupplementaryServices.Cancel() -> ()
[METHOD]   org.ofono.SupplementaryServices.GetProperties() -> (a{sv}:properties)
[SIGNAL]   org.ofono.SupplementaryServices.NotificationReceived(s:message)
[SIGNAL]   org.ofono.SupplementaryServices.RequestReceived(s:message)
[SIGNAL]   org.ofono.SupplementaryServices.PropertyChanged(s:name, v:value)
[METHOD]   org.ofono.CellBroadcast.GetProperties() -> (a{sv}:properties)
[METHOD]   org.ofono.CellBroadcast.SetProperty(s:property, v:value) -> ()
[SIGNAL]   org.ofono.CellBroadcast.PropertyChanged(s:property, v:value)
[SIGNAL]   org.ofono.CellBroadcast.IncomingBroadcast(s:message, q:channel)
[SIGNAL]   org.ofono.CellBroadcast.EmergencyBroadcast(s:message, a{sv}:dict)
[METHOD]   org.ofono.ConnectionManager.GetProperties() -> (a{sv}:properties)
[METHOD]   org.ofono.ConnectionManager.SetProperty(s:property, v:value) -> ()
[METHOD]   org.ofono.ConnectionManager.AddContext(s:type) -> (o:path)
[METHOD]   org.ofono.ConnectionManager.RemoveContext(o:path) -> ()
[METHOD]   org.ofono.ConnectionManager.DeactivateAll() -> ()
[METHOD]   org.ofono.ConnectionManager.GetContexts() -> (a(oa{sv}):contexts_with_properties)
[METHOD]   org.ofono.ConnectionManager.ResetContexts() -> ()
[SIGNAL]   org.ofono.ConnectionManager.PropertyChanged(s:name, v:value)
[SIGNAL]   org.ofono.ConnectionManager.ContextAdded(o:path, a{sv}:properties)
[SIGNAL]   org.ofono.ConnectionManager.ContextRemoved(o:path)
[METHOD]   org.ofono.NetworkRegistration.GetProperties() -> (a{sv}:properties)
[METHOD]   org.ofono.NetworkRegistration.Register() -> ()
[METHOD]   org.ofono.NetworkRegistration.GetOperators() -> (a(oa{sv}):operators_with_properties)
[METHOD]   org.ofono.NetworkRegistration.Scan() -> (a(oa{sv}):operators_with_properties)
[SIGNAL]   org.ofono.NetworkRegistration.PropertyChanged(s:name, v:value)